"Supervised and Unsupervised Learning in 90 Seconds of Reading"
** Brief Definition : **
Supervised and unsupervised learning are two fundamental facets of machine learning, each specifically tailored to handle distinct types of data. In supervised learning, the machine learning algorithm is trained on a labeled dataset, where each data point consists of both input features and corresponding output labels. The goal is for the algorithm to learn the mapping from inputs to outputs based on these labeled examples. In unsupervised learning, the machine learning algorithm is trained on an unlabeled dataset to find hidden patterns, structures, or relationships within the data. Unlike supervised learning, there are no predefined output labels for the algorithm to learn from.
** Intuition 🙂 : **
In supervised learning, envision having a jigsaw puzzle featuring a picture of a dog, where each puzzle piece is labeled with its correct position in the completed picture. The model learns from these labeled examples, figuring out the relationships between the shapes and colors of the pieces and their correct locations.This process, often referred to as the training step, allows the model to internalize the patterns within the labeled data. Subsequently, after training, the model is adept at taking a new puzzle of a dog and precisely assembling it based on the knowledge acquired during the training process.
Now, imagine you have a bag of puzzle pieces without a picture or labels — just a mix of colors and shapes. In unsupervised learning, the model explores the characteristics of the puzzle pieces without any predefined labels or information about the complete picture, identifying groups that share similar colors, shapes, or patterns. The model doesn't know what the complete picture looks like, but it discovers that certain pieces belong together based on shared features. These groups represent clusters of similar puzzle pieces.
In this puzzle analogy, supervised learning entails constructing a model with labeled examples to tackle a specific task, while unsupervised learning involves the model autonomously uncovering patterns or relationships within the data without explicit direction.
"Understanding Overfitting and Underfitting in a Quick 90-Second Read"
Overfitting and underfitting represent two common issues in machine learning that affect the performance of a model. In the context of overfitting, the model learns the training data too precisely, capturing noise and fluctuations that are specific to the training set but do not generalize well to new, unseen data. Underfitting, on the other hand, occurs when a model is enabled to capture the underlying patterns in the training data, resulting in poor performance not only on the training set but also on new, unseen data. It indicates a failure to learn the complexities of the data.
**Analogy : **
Intuitively, returning to the example of the student that we presented in the definition of the machine learning concept, we discussed the possibility of considering a machine learning model as a student in a class. After the lecture phase, equivalent to the training step for the model, the student takes an exam or quiz to confirm their understanding of the course material. Now, imagine a student who failed to comprehend anything during the course and did not prepare. On the exam day, this student, having failed to grasp the content, will struggle to answer and will receive a low grade; this represents the case of underfitting in machine learning. On the other hand, let's consider another student who, despite having a limited understanding of the course, mechanically memorized the content and exercises. During the exam, when faced with questions reformulated or presented in a new manner, this student, having learned without true comprehension, will also fail due to the inability to adapt, illustrating the case of overfitting in machine learning.
This analogy between a machine learning model and a student highlights the insightful parallels of underfitting and overfitting. Just as a student can fail by not grasping the course or memorizing without true understanding, a model can suffer from underfitting if it's too simple to capture patterns or overfitting if it memorizes the training data too precisely. Striking the right balance between complexity and generalization is crucial for developing effective machine learning models adaptable to diverse and unknown data. In essence, this educational analogy emphasizes the delicate equilibrium required in the machine learning learning process.
Grasping the concept of machine learning in just 90 seconds of reading
Machine learning is a branch of the artificial intelligence domain that encompasses various methods relying on learning from data to solve problems such as prediction, classification, dimensionality reduction, etc. Learning from the data means that machine learning systems can analyze patterns, extract insights, and make informed decisions without being explicitly programmed for a particular task. Instead of adhering to predetermined rules, machine learning methods adapt and improve their performance over time. The process involves training models, validating their accuracy, and testing their generalization to new, unseen data.
Intuitively, we can envision the machine learning model as a student in a classroom. The teacher imparts knowledge to the student during what we refer to as the training step for the machine learning model. After the session, the student undergoes a quiz to solidify the concepts, representing the validation step for the machine learning model. Finally, the student takes a comprehensive final exam to test their understanding of the entire course. All of these stages occur gradually over what is termed as epochs in the context of a machine learning model.
In this analogy, each epoch corresponds to a complete cycle of the training, validation, and testing phases. It's like the student attending multiple class sessions, quizzes, and exams to reinforce and assess their knowledge. With each successive epoch, the machine learning model refines its understanding of the data, enhancing its ability to make accurate predictions or classifications in real-world applications. Just as a student becomes more adept through repeated study sessions, the machine learning model becomes increasingly proficient with each pass through the data.
"Finding the Sun of My Sky: Bloom's Journey" [1/2]
Within the intricate tapestry of our vast world, a hidden sanctuary emerges—Nighthaven, an expansive and mysterious forest veiled in an impenetrable cloak of darkness. The towering timbers, reaching skyward, appear to consume light itself, casting an everlasting twilight where neither the sun's rays nor the gentle flicker of flames dare to breach. In this realm of perpetual night, its inhabitants come into being shrouded in the absence of sight.
Nighthaven, a world crafted in a myriad of black hues, denies the very existence of color. Its denizens, oblivious to the visual spectrum, are born strangers to the concept of sight. In their world of four senses—touch, taste, smell, and sound—they navigate through an awareness confined by the limitations of their senses. Deprived of the gift of vision, they form mental images based on the tactile, auditory, olfactory, and gustatory dimensions of their surroundings. Here, in this secluded enclave, the canvas of perception is painted not in the vibrant strokes of color but in the subtleties of their restricted senses, creating a narrative woven in the depths of eternal night.
Yet amid the prevailing shadows of Nighthaven, life unfolded in a chiaroscuro of exceptions, and there emerged Bloom, a luminous anomaly in the tapestry of monotony. The solitary scion of his lineage, his eyes bore an otherworldly luminescence, a radiant emanation that divulged his extraordinary endowment. Unparalleled among his peers, Bloom possessed the rare faculty to apprehend light itself, unraveling the ineffable intricacies—the play of shadows, the nuanced contours of moonlit silhouettes, and the elusive ballet of starlight. However, Bloom's revelation confronted a formidable resistance within the hallowed precincts of his own kin. Initially steeped in skepticism, his progenitors summarily dismissed his extraordinary visions as mere phantoms birthed from the forge of imagination. They adamantly proclaimed the nonexistence of such phenomena, driven by a latent fear of consequences yet unknown. In dread of potential ramifications, they vehemently dissuaded Bloom from sharing his unique gift, their warnings laced with the ominous threat of retribution should he defy their authoritative directive. Consequently, Bloom found himself adrift in solitude, the solitary candle flickering in the profound darkness that enveloped him.
In the velvety obscurity, however, a contrasting brilliance endured—an effulgent soul named Sky, a paragon of unwavering faith in Bloom's extraordinary faculty. Though akin to the sightless denizens of Nighthaven, Sky perceived the world not through ocular perception but through the luminosity residing within her heart. Persistently beseeching Bloom to articulate his visual marvels, she regarded his narratives not as mere tales but as resplendent tapestries woven from the uncharted hues of the unseen. Thus, Bloom spent the entirety of his childhood years regaling Sky with the enigmatic wonders that unfolded before his unique gaze, the duo carving out a sanctuary of shared illumination in the all-encompassing murk of their world. As the years passed, Bloom's abilities continued to evolve. His descriptions of the world gained depth and nuance, revealing the beauty that eluded the senses of his fellow inhabitants. Sky, in turn, became a conduit for this hidden world, translating Bloom's visions into a language of emotion and imagination that resonated with the hearts of those who listened.
In the shroud of night, Bloom discerned a distant enchantment bathed in an unfamiliar radiance, a luminosity that eluded his grasp. He attempted to articulate this elusive spectacle, likening it to the gentle glow of moonlight yet marked by a luminosity distinct and enigmatic, as if the very essence of radiance had taken on an unfamiliar form.
"Finding the Sun of My Sky: Bloom's Journey"[2/2]
Bloom's extraordinary gift began to spread beyond the secluded enclave, reaching curious ears and stirring a longing in others to perceive a world beyond the confines of touch, taste, smell, and sound. Nighthaven, once bound by the limitations of its inhabitants, now found itself on the cusp of change. The once impenetrable cloak of darkness began to shimmer with the possibility of a broader spectrum of understanding. Yet, as whispers of Bloom's gift reached the ears of those who held power in Nighthaven, a shadow of fear and resistance descended upon the enclave. Leaders and traditionalists, wary of disrupting the established order, sought to suppress the burgeoning awareness that Bloom's revelations ignited. They viewed his ability not as a gift but as a threat to the stability of their world, fearing that the introduction of a new sense could unravel the delicate balance that had endured for generations.
In a solemn decree, the leaders of Nighthaven, cloaked in the weight of tradition, banished Bloom from the confines of their nocturnal sanctuary. The solitary flame, once revered for its uniqueness, now flickered on the outskirts, an exile from the embrace of the towering timbers. Bloom, with the weight of his visions and the alien radiance clinging to him, stood on the precipice of an unknown realm. Yet, in the face of exile, Bloom was not alone. Sky, the stalwart believer who had traversed the tapestry of his revelations, chose to stand by his side. Together, they ventured into the uncharted territories beyond Nighthaven, a tandem bound by shared curiosity and a refusal to succumb to the shadows of fear. The luminosity that had sparked the upheaval became their guiding beacon. Bloom, once a pariah, now found purpose in unraveling the mysteries of this newfound radiance. Their journey led them to the discovery of beings possessing extraordinary capacities, beings akin to humans but with abilities that transcended the norm. The first encounter revealed individuals who could glide through the ocean depths like ethereal fish. Mesmerized, Bloom and Sky listened to vivid descriptions of the hidden beauty beneath the waves: schools of iridescent fish, exotic herbs swaying with the current, and a realm untouched by the limitations of Nighthaven. For Bloom and Sky, these encounters transcended the realm of mere tales; they served as portals to a world previously confined to the realms of their dreams. The allure of the unknown propelled them forward, their senses intoxicated by the promise of a reality that extended beyond the familiar boundaries of touch, taste, smell, and sound. Each revelation acted as a brushstroke on the canvas of their perception, infusing new hues and expanding the tapestry of their understanding.
As their odyssey unfolded, they crossed paths with a multitude of beings, each possessing unique capabilities. From those who communed effortlessly with animals to individuals who could decipher the very fabric of ideas, and even those who wielded the power to materialize and dematerialize at will. These encounters were not merely diversions along their journey but revelations that reshaped the contours of their comprehension. In the recurrent pursuit of understanding, Bloom persistently sought answers about the celestial mystery—an enigmatic luminous object resembling the moon but adorned with a distinct glow. Yet, with each inquiry, precision eluded him, leaving the cosmic puzzle suspended in the vastness of uncertainty. Unfazed, Bloom and Sky pressed on, their footsteps echoing in synchrony with their unyielding curiosity. Suddenly, the atmosphere underwent a subtle transformation. Bloom, attuned to the nuances of his surroundings, noted the gradual clearing of the weather and the dissipation of the once-pervasive darkness. A glimmer of clarity emerged, paving the way for the revelation that awaited them on the horizon. Unexpectedly, the duo encountered beings with wings, soaring gracefully through the sky. The spectacle unfolded before them like a living tapestry of celestial elegance, leaving Bloom and Sky entranced. Inquisitive as ever, Bloom approached these winged entities, seeking not only an understanding of their aerial prowess but also answers about the elusive luminous object that had stirred his curiosity. With smiles that mirrored the radiance of their flight, the winged beings responded, revealing the cosmic secret. "It is the sun," they declared, the words resonating like a celestial anthem. The sun, the universal illuminator, held sway over the vast expanse. Bloom, captivated by this revelation, sought further guidance on its whereabouts.
The winged entities, ever gracious, gestured towards the horizon, assuring Bloom that the sun would manifest on its own as dawn approached. As the first rays of dawn began to kiss the horizon, a soft luminescence painted the landscape. The winged beings, their silhouettes now outlined by the burgeoning light, gracefully guided Bloom and Sky towards a vantage point. There, amidst the serene ambiance of the approaching dawn, they would bear witness to the revelation of the sun. Time seemed to hold its breath as the horizon transformed into a canvas ablaze with hues unseen in Nighthaven. The air shimmered with the promise of a new day, and as the first sliver of the sun peeked above the edge of the world, Bloom felt a surge of emotion. He finally saw the sun. He finally sees the sun, and turning to Sky, he exclaims, "I've found the sun of my Sky." Sky smiles, basking in the warmth of the sun, and asks Bloom to describe the view so she can etch it into her memory.
Bloom and Sky, at some point, harbor a desire to return to Nighthaven, but they can't find a way back. It's as if the path home is vanishing with the light of the sun. Bloom is disturbed by this, but Sky, with a serene smile, reassures him, saying, "We should go forward and discover the mysteries of this universe."