Think Forward.

Science

whey protein

Part 1 Whey protein has been widely used in untrained subjects [1] or in power trained athletes to increase muscle mass and to improve strength and physical performance [2-4]. However, there are relatively few studies examining the effects of whey protein supplementation on body composition and performance in well-trained endurance athletes [5, 6] and the results are sometimes conflicting. For example, Huang et al. [5] reported increased distance run in 12-min running test associated with an increase in whole body muscle mass, with no difference in performance in the placebo group; they also found decreases in “liver” enzymes, LDH, and creatine kinase (muscle damage markers) after 5-weeks of 33.5 g/day whey protein supplementation in endurance track runners. However, Roberson et al. [6] found increased lean mass, a tendency of mitochondrial capacity to be improved, but without significant improvement in physical performance after the ingestion of 25 g whey protein (post-exercise and pre-sleep) during 10 weeks in endurance runners. The inconsistent results of the effects of whey protein supplementation on endurance exercise performance and the associated post-exercise recovery parameters are in part related to some methodological differences such as the duration of supplementation, the amount, type, and timing of protein intake, and the training status of the subject. According to Phillips & van Loon [7], endurance athletes need more protein than the current recommendation of 0.8 g/kg/day for normal subjects, in order to achieve training adaptations and improve performance [7, 8]. The position statement of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) stated that protein supplementation may help to offset muscle damage during and following exercise and promote muscle recovery in athletes [9]. The rationale for the increased protein intake for endurance athletes is that their training volume is typically greater than for powerful athletes, i.e. about 6 days per week so as to attain adequate training distance per week. Further, endurance athletes often use a mixed training approach incorporating eccentric exercises, plyometrics and obstacle courses; these training regimens often induce muscle catabolism as well as resulting in muscle damage [10, 11]. Muscle protein catabolism during exercise is not desirable as the amino acids lost in this process are required to support post-exercise and training adaptations. Also, excessive muscle damage with associated inflammation and requirement for muscle repair slows muscle recovery and impairs subsequent performance [12].

XR Voice (Moroccan Dialectal)

XR Voice is an initiative aimed at bridging the gap between scientific research and professional expertise. Recognizing that the advancement of scientific inquiry begins with elevating awareness within the professional realm, XR Voice seeks to gather insights from experts across various fields. By listening to the voices of professionals and their perspectives, this platform aims to explore how scientific research can enhance and refine diverse domains of expertise. Through this collaboration, XR Voice endeavors to catalyze a symbiotic relationship where cutting-edge research not only informs but actively elevates the standards and practices within the professional world. By attentively considering the perspectives of professionals, this platform endeavors to explore how scientific research can enrich and refine various domains of expertise. Through collaborative engagement, XR Voice seeks to cultivate a symbiotic relationship wherein cutting-edge research not only informs but actively elevates the standards and practices within professional contexts. This mission is underpinned by the fundamental belief that all development begins with a deepened awareness and appreciation of scientific inquiry. Furthermore, this concept encourages experts to utilize Moroccan dialectal Arabic whenever feasible, fostering inclusivity and cultural resonance within the discourse. “No country has ever prospered without first building its capacity to anticipate, trigger and absorb economic and social change through scientific research.” Dr. El Mostafa Bourhim

A new version with minor updates.

Hello everyone! Last week we released a new version of Bluwr. The website looks almost the same, but we have: - Simplified the login page by removing the photo (it caused some display errors on some phone) - Made the **Follow buttons** clearer, to make it easier to know if you are following someone - Fixed an error that caused the number of Bluws to not appear in the analytics table - Fixed some typos on the french website Everyday we strive to make Bluwr better. Thank you for being here! The Bluwr Team

The Impact of Big Five Personality Traits on Augmented Reality Acceptance Behavior: An Investigation in the Tourism Field

Along with the rapid development of the Internet and mobile devices, the integration of augmented reality (AR) in the tourism sector has become very popular. Utilizing the Big five model (BFM) as the theoretical framework, the study examines the role of personality in influencing the behavioral intention (BI) to use mobile augmented reality in the tourism sector (MART). The study further investigates the role of personal innovativeness (PIV) in determining tourists’ behavioral intentions to use MART. Quantitative research was carried out to test the conceptual model. This paper strengthened the analysis by implementing PLS-SEM method using data collected from 374 participants. The study results demonstrated that openness to experience (OPN) is a strong predictor of MART use. In addition, agreeableness (AGR), conscientiousness (CONs), extraversion (EX), neuroticism (NR), and personal innovativeness (PIV) have all significant and positive impacts on behavioral intention (BI) to use MART. The present research purpose was to investigate the BFM variables with regards to MART use. The research also examined the contribution of PIV in explaining the BI to use MART. By employing PLS-SEM to tackle the primary study question. The current work makes a significant advance in MART use research. Empirically, the findings achieved are consistent with the BFM. Based on the outcomes of this research, all relationships have been assessed as being statistically relevant. Moreover, PIV positively influences the use of MART. The BI to use MART was positively impacted by AGR (H1: β = 0.128), CON (H2: β = 0.108), EX (H3: β = 0.124), NR (H4: β = 0.322), and OPN (H5: β = 0.169). This implies that users are expected to exhibit a strong BI to use MART when they are agreeable, conscious, extroverted, neurotic, and open to experiences. Additionally, the outcomes of the present paper also significantly upheld the association between PIV and the BI to use MART. Path analysis was found to be significant and positive (H6: β = 0.156); the result states that innovative tourists will intend to use MART. The important limitations are a higher risk of overlooking ‘real’ correlations and sensitivity to the scaling of the descriptor variables.
xrm.ma/research-publication/

Reshaping Sport with Extended Reality in an Era of Metaverse: Insights from XR the Moroccan Association Experts

Extended reality (XR) is becoming a growing technology used by athletes, trainers, and other sports professionals. Despite the rapid growth of XR, its application in sports remains largely unexplored. This study is designed to identify and prioritize factors affecting the implementation of XR in Moroccan sports science institutes. To achieve this, the study employs the A’WOT methodology, a hybrid multi-criteria decision method combining the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) technique with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Through expert group discussions, the study identifies and categorizes the factors affecting XR implementation into SWOT groups. Subsequently, the AHP methodology is employed to determine the relative importance of each factor by conducting interviews with a panel of sports and XR experts. The study’s findings, obtained through the A’WOT methodology, establish a ranking of the fundamental factors for successful XR implementation in Moroccan sports science institutes. The findings suggested that a strategic approach for implementing XR technology in Morocco needs to be driven principally by a combined approach based on the SWOT opportunities and strengths groups. The present study investigates the benefits, challenges and opportunities of XR technology in Moroccan sports science institutes based on the SWOT-AHP framework. The strengths and opportunities ratings based on XR The Moroccan Association perspectives are positively inter-preferred for XR technology. Thus, based on this research, the framework provided can be interpreted as a roadmap for supporting the development of the strategic implementation of XR technology in Moroccan sport science institutes, while providing more credible information for decision-makers in the overall process. An in-depth analysis of the findings enables us to conclude that the strategic implementation of XR technology in Moroccan sports science institutes has to be driven principally by the opportunities factors that could assist in overcoming the identified main weaknesses and threats, along with maximizing the strengths. Following these guidelines, decision-makers are expected to initiate a range of activities in order to establish the right external environment in which opportunities can be fully exploited to tackle the principal weaknesses and threats revealed by the analysis. This research provides strong evidence for XR deployment in the sense that it reflects the views of XR The Moroccan Association practitioners and researchers on XR technology.
xrm.ma/research-publication/

The Immortal Worm

In 2014, a Caenorhabditis elegans worm's brain was successfully encoded as a computer program and given control of a LEGO robot. The worm's nervous system and brain was researched on a cellular level to determine the precise interaction between all 302 neurons in the worm. Researchers found the behavior of the worm was successfully replicated and the robot behaved identically to the biological worm. It lives in a hard-drive without the possibility of being properly erased from history. The human race is a cruel enslaver of a worm's soul.

Angioedema: "From localized swelling attacks to potentially fatal asphyxia"

Angioedemas are characterized by an accumulation of fluid in the mucous membranes and skin resulting in swelling of the face, limbs or genitals.They may carry a risk of asphyxiation when the throat is affected. ANGIOEDEMA OF ALLERGIC ORIGIN In the vast majority of cases, it is an angioedema of allergic origin, about 20% of the population are affected at some point in their life. Often associated with an urticaria, it can be caused by food, insect bite or drug. The treatment of this histamine angioedema is based on corticosteroids and antihistamine drugs. In the most severe cases (quincke's oedema), adrenaline is essential to avoid anaphylactic shock (spread of allergy throughout the body). THE HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA Angioedema may have another cause, often unknown : it is the hereditary bradykinic angioedema. This rarer form occurs most often during childhood or adolescence, edema develops gradually and recidivally in a few hours and persists for an average of 2 to 5 days and disappears without sequelae. The frequency and severity of seizures vary according to the patients and for the same patient according to the periods of life. Certain events such as dental procedures, infections, stress, pregnancy ... are the triggering factors of the crisis. The swelling may affect the abdomen, causing severe pain, nausea and vomiting as well as diarrhea. Laryngeal edema is life-threatening with a 25% risk of death in the absence of appropriate treatment. Even more rarely, bradykinetic angioedema exists in an acquired non-hereditary form, usually occurring in adults over 50 years of age and subsequent to another disease (autoimmune or cancerous) or to certain drugs such as antihypertensive drugs of the family of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or antidiabetic agents.. The treatment of bradykin angioedema attacks is based on the use of drugs that are not yet available in Morocco (subcutaneous injections of icatibant or intravenous C1Inh concentrate). Tranexamic acid or danazol are basic treatments for the disease. THE MOROCCAN ASSOCIATION OF ANGIOEDEMA The Moroccan Association of Angioedema Patients (AMMAO), chaired by Mr. Imad Elaouni, was created in February 2018 by civil society people and members of the medical and paramedical profession with the aim providing information and awareness to the population about these pathologies as well as the unification of the efforts and the assistance to lend to the people suffering from them. Professor Laurence Bouillet, Professor of Internal Medicine and coordinator of the national reference center on angioedema in France, is the honorary president. AMMAO is also a member of the global network of angioedema -HAEI. -Dr Moussayer Khadija, medical doctor in internal medecine, chairwoman of the alliance of rare diseases in Morocco, vice-president of the Moroccan Association of Angioedema Patients (AMMAO), BIBLIOGRAPHIE - Isabelle Boccon-Gibod , Laurence Bouillet, MD , Clement Olivier, Clinical Characteristics of Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) Type III Patients Compared with Those with HAE Type I/II , JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY 26/01/13, Doi : 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.12.791 - Laurence Bouillet, Diagnostic des angioedèmes héréditaires, La Presse Médicale, Volume 44, Issue 1, 2015, Pages 52-56, ISSN 0755-4982, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2014.06.027. - Khadija Moussayer, Les angioedèmes en débat à Casablanca le 19 janvier 2019, Mescursus 29 Décembre 2018. https://medcursus.com/442/les-angioedemes-en-debat-casablanca-le-19-janvier-2019 - Khadija Moussayer, On estime que 2.000 personnes sont touchées par les angioedèmes bradykiniques au Maroc, Le Matin ma, 4 janvier 2024 https://lematin.ma/express/2022/maroc-compte-2000-cas-angioedeme-bradykinique/384170.html EL ANGIOEDEMA : "Desde los ataques de hinchazón localizados hasta la asfixia potencialmente mortal" El Angioedema se caracteriza por una acumulación de líquido en las mucosas y en la piel, lo que produce unhinchazón e inflamación de la cara, de las extremidades o de los genitales. Puede poner en peligro la vida del paciente, cuando afecta a la vía aérea. En la gran mayoría de los casos, es un angioedema de origen alérgico. Afecta a aproximadamente el 20% de la población en algún momento de su vida, y esta a menudo asociado a la presencia de una urticaria. Puede ser causado por un alimento, una picadura de insecto o un medicamento. El angioedema histamínicose trata concorticosteroides y antihistamínicos. En los casos más graves (edema de Quincke), la adrenalina constituye el tratamiento de elección para evitar el shock anafiláctico. Otra causa del angioedema, a menudo desconocida en Marruecos es : el angioedema bradiquínico hereditario. Se trata de una forma rara que ocurre con mayor frecuencia durante la infancia o la adolescencia. Los pacientes presentan edemas recurrentes que duran de 2 a 5 días y que desaparecen sin secuelas. Los episodios o ataques de la enfermedad se producen de forma impredecible y varían de un paciente a otro. Se conocen una serie de factores que pueden desencadenar los ataques como los procedimientos dentales, las infecciones de la esfera ORL, el estrés, el embarazo ... El hinchazón puede incluso afectar al abdomen, provocando dolores intensos, náuseas y vómitos, así como diarrea. El edema laríngeo es potencialmente mortal, con un riesgo de muerte del 25% en ausencia de un tratamiento adecuado. Una forma aún más rara es el angioedema bradiquínico adquirido no hereditario, cual ocurre generalmente en adultos mayores de 50 años, y es consecuencia de otra enfermedad (autoinmune o cancerosa) o de ciertos medicamentos como los antihipertensivos de la familia de losinhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA) o los antidiabéticos. El tratamiento de los ataques de angioedema bradiquínico consiste en el uso de medicamentos que aún no están disponibles en Marruecos (inyecciones subcutáneas de icatibant o administración intravenosa de concentrados de INH-C1). El ácido tranexámico o el danazol constituyen tratamientos de fondode la enfermedad.

AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PHENYLKETONURIA IN MOROCCO

The 2nd international conference on phenylketonuria (PKU) was held on November 17-19, 2023, in Marrakech. This event was co-organized by 4 associations: The Moroccan Association for Child and Mother’s Health (AMSEM), HMEMSA (Home of Moroccan Educators and Moroccan Students in America), SOS PKU MAROC, American Moroccan Competencies Network, and the support of the Alliance of Rare Diseases in Morocco (AMRM). INFORMATION AND AWARENESS FOR HEALTH PROFESSIONALS AS WELL AS PATIENTS AND FAMILIES This event aimed to promote the health of affected people with this disease through education, awareness, and support for research. PKU is a rare hereditary disease responsible, in the absence of diagnosis and early treatment, for psychomotor and mental retardation with serious consequences. The accumulation of an aminoacid (phenylalanine) becomes toxic and destroys the nerve cells in the brain. The only available treatment is a diet based on dietary products with low amounts of phenylalanine, which are, unfortunately, very expensive. Eminent specialists from Morocco, the United States, Canada, and Europe intervened during the first scientific day. The 2nd day “PKU family camp” was dedicated to families, patients, and medical professionals to exchange the right support for parents with PKU patients and the long-life management of these patients. The day will was also an opportunity for the clinician specialists to offer consultations to patients and psycho-educational support to their families. AN AFFLICTION WITH TOO OFTEN IRREVERSIBLE CONSEQUENCES PKU is caused by a disorder in the metabolism of phenylalanine, an aminoacid (protein fragment) present in food, and typically transformed into another aminoacid, tyrosine. The enzyme responsible for this aminoacid conversion is defective in PKU patients. The PKU babies gradually develop mental and psychomotor retardation with symptoms such as seizures, nausea and vomiting, skin rash, hyperactivity, aggression or self-harm, reduced head circumference (microcephaly), lighter skin, eyes and hair (a result of tyrosine deficiency). Children often have a “mousy” or musty odor due to a phenylalanine by product in their urine and sweat. THE DIET IS “AN ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE MISSION.” The child must follow a very strict low-protein diet, where meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, and starchy foods are eliminated until the age of 12, then, depending on the case, relaxed during adolescence. The precarious availability in Morocco and the high cost of specific dietary products (flour, special pasta, complementary solutions, etc.) often mean that children “literally starve” to respect these rules. A box of specific milk for children costs around 500 Dh and is rarely available in Morocco! In addition, a medication that stimulates the breakdown of phenylalanine and helps reduce the diet in some children exists but is also unavailable! In addition to the enormous constraints generated by the disease, families experience a “real struggle” between the high cost and unavailability of treatment! We must underline the significant assistance the association HEMSA in the US provided for shipping dietary products to SOS PKU in Morocco and their continuous advocacy efforts to have PKU recognized in Morocco. A LIFE-SAVING GESTURE BUT UNFORTUNATELY NOT SYSTEMATIZED IN MOROCCO : NEONATAL SCREENING Depending on the country, the disease affects between 1 in 20,000 and 1 in 4,000 newborns. Morocco most likely has a high prevalence due to the high consanguinity in the society, which increases the frequency of this genetic disease. Typically, this disease must be screened systematically in all newborns; the absence of this screening and the early regime results in several thousand children and adults with mental disabilities. This test, carried out using a few drops of blood taken on the 3rd day of life and placed on a blotting paper, would make it possible to avoid these complications. The test already exists in all European and certain Arab countries. CONSULTATION WITH PUBLIC AUTHORITIES Discussions are underway with the Ministry of Health and the various stakeholders for recognizing PKU as a long-term condition, launching a neonatal screening program, and marketing dietary products in Morocco. The event was an an excellent opportunity to sign partnership agreements between AMSEM and SOS PKU MAROC with the Alliance of Rare Diseases in Morocco. This exciting development will undoubtedly pave the way for fruitful collaboration between these organizations, improve and save lives, reduce PKU patients suffering, and provide substantial spill over benefits for maternal, child, and family health. Dr MOUSSAYER KHADIJA الدكتورة خديجة موسيار Chairwoman of Alliance Rare diseases Morocco RESUME EN FRANÇAIS Les 17 et 18 novembre 2023 s’est tenue à Marrakech la 2ème conférence internationale sur la phénylcétonurie (PCU), coorganisée par 4 entités : Association Marocaine pour la Santé de l’Enfant et de la Mère (AMSEM), HMEMSA (Home of Moroccan Educators and Moroccan Students in America), SOS PKU MAROC, American Moroccan Competencies Network et avec le soutien de l’Alliance des Maladies Rares au Maroc (AMRM). Cet évènement avait pour objectif de promouvoir la santé des personnes atteinte à travers l’éducation, la sensibilisation et le soutien à la recherche. La PCU est une maladie rare héréditaire responsable, en absence de diagnostic et de prise en charge précoce, d’un retard psychomoteur et mental aux conséquences graves, à la suite de la destruction des cellules nerveuses du cerveau par l’accumulation toxique d’un acide aminé (phénylalanine). Le seul traitement est un régime alimentaire se basant sur des produits diététiques faibles en phénylalanine, malheureusement très chers. D’éminents spécialistes du Maroc, des Etats Unis, du Canada et d’Europe sont intervenus lors d’une 1ère journée scientifique. La 2ème journée, le « PKU family camp », a été dédiée aux familles, patients et aussi au corps médical pour échanger et faire connaître les bonnes pratiques au quotidien, notamment pour une meilleure efficience du régime.

From 'Yikes!' to 'Yes, Please!': Snake Venom's Medical Magic

Think of snake venom as nature's spicy sauce – it's not just for biting! Each snake mixes its own special blend, some zapping nerves (neurotoxic) and others messing with blood (hemotoxic). But here's the fun twist: this scary snake juice is stirring up some medical magic. Got high blood pressure? Thank pit vipers for Captopril. Clotty blood? Tip your hat to the tiny pygmy rattlesnake for Eptifibatide. Who knew snake venom could go from 'Yikes!' to 'Yes, please!' in the world of medicine?

Four keys to create supervised learning model

Supervised learning is a strategy in machine learning that enables a model to learn from data without being explicitly programmed. In other words, in supervised learning, the model tries to find the relationship between the "input" X and the "output" Y. Therefore, the first key to creating a supervised learning model is the dataset. **Key 1 : Dataset** Having a labeled dataset is essential, including two important types of information: the target variable Y, which is what we want to predict, and the explanatory variable X, which are the factors that help us make predictions. Let's take an example: imagine we want our model to predict the weather (Y) based on factors like temperature, humidity, and wind speed (X). To do this, we gather a dataset with information from the past, where we already know both the weather outcomes (Y) and the corresponding factors (X). This dataset acts like a box of puzzle pieces. Each piece represents one of the factors, and finding the relationship between these pieces defines the weather. We can represent this relationship as a mathematical equation, like this: Y = F(X), where F represents our model. Therefore, the second key is the Model. **Key 2: Model** The fundamental model in supervised machine learning is a linear model expressed as y = ax + b. However, the real world often presents nonlinear problems. In such cases, we explore non-linear models, such as a polynomial of degree two like y = ax² + bx + c, or even of degree three, and beyond. It's crucial to understand that each model has parameters requiring adjustment during training. Consequently, the two remaining critical components are the cost function and the optimization algorithm. **Key 3 : Cost Function** In machine learning, a cost function, also called a loss or objective function, quantifies the gap between the target and predicted values, signifying the model's error. The aim is to minimize this error to craft the most effective model. **Key 4 : Optimizer** Optimizer forms the core of a machine learning model, representing the strategy to discover parameter values that minimize the cost function. It plays a crucial role in fine-tuning the model for optimal performance.

Part 5/5: PhD - The Eternal Optimist: Next Time Will Be Different (But Not Really)

PhD Students: Where Schedules are Fiction and Coffee is King! "Colorful Calendars, Doomed to Fail": PhD students craft rainbow schedules, thinking this time it'll stick. Spoiler: It doesn't. "Surprise! More Work": Just when they think they've got it sorted, in swoops an email with a 'fun' new task. So long, free time! "Becoming a Night Creature": Who needs sunlight? The real magic happens at 2 AM, fueled by the glow of a laptop screen. "Coffee: The New Water": PhD students don't just drink coffee; they breathe it. It's not a choice; it's survival. "Procrastination Olympics": Watch as they masterfully avoid work by reorganizing sock drawers. Followed by panic-induced hyper-productivity. "Time, What's That?": One minute it's Monday; next, it's deadline day. Time flies when you're... panicking. "Free Time? Sounds Fake": When they do get a break, they're too puzzled to enjoy it. Ends up napping with books as pillows. "Deadline Superhero Mode": Everything gets done in a last-minute frenzy. How? Magic (and maybe a bit of crying). "Post-Deadline Amnesia": Once it's over, they forget the chaos and swear to never repeat it. Narrator: "They will." "Next Time Will Be Different": The eternal PhD mantra. Hope springs eternal, but so does the chaos. Basically, PhD students are like superheroes who fight the villains of procrastination and deadlines with the power of caffeine and last-minute panic. "Running on coffee and a questionable understanding of time management!"

Part 4/5: Research, Rants, & Ridiculousness: The Lighter Side of PhD Madness

PhD: the art of turning coffee, chaos, and code into a degree, one panic attack at a time. - My machine learning model predicted I'd finish my PhD on time. Spoiler: Even AI has a sense of humor. - Neurotoxicity research: figuring out if it's the toxins affecting the brain, or just the endless hours in the lab. - Snake venom for drug discovery? Sure, because handling deadly snakes is less frightening than asking my advisor for a deadline extension. - I told my computer to find a cure for snake bites. It opened a travel site to Antarctica. No snakes, no bites, problem solved!

Part 3/5: 9 Hilarious Truths Only Ph.D. Students Will Understand

Ph.D. Life: When Your Brain Expands, and Your Social Life Disappears! - Coffee Transformation: You start to believe that coffee is a basic human right. - Time Bender: Somehow, all your deadlines are 'tomorrow'. - Lab Maze Runner: You know your lab better than your own home. - Conference Life: You're there for the free coffee and snacks. - Email Excavation: Finding an old email feels like a treasure hunt. - PDF Collector: You have more unread academic papers than unread emails. - Thesis Magic: Turning random experiments into a thesis feels like a magic trick. - Jargon Juggler: You speak a strange language that only five people in the world understand. - Nap Ninja: Mastering the art of napping anywhere, anytime.

"Supervised and Unsupervised Learning in 90 Seconds of Reading"

** Brief Definition : ** Supervised and unsupervised learning are two fundamental facets of machine learning, each specifically tailored to handle distinct types of data. In supervised learning, the machine learning algorithm is trained on a labeled dataset, where each data point consists of both input features and corresponding output labels. The goal is for the algorithm to learn the mapping from inputs to outputs based on these labeled examples. In unsupervised learning, the machine learning algorithm is trained on an unlabeled dataset to find hidden patterns, structures, or relationships within the data. Unlike supervised learning, there are no predefined output labels for the algorithm to learn from. ** Intuition 🙂 : ** In supervised learning, envision having a jigsaw puzzle featuring a picture of a dog, where each puzzle piece is labeled with its correct position in the completed picture. The model learns from these labeled examples, figuring out the relationships between the shapes and colors of the pieces and their correct locations.This process, often referred to as the training step, allows the model to internalize the patterns within the labeled data. Subsequently, after training, the model is adept at taking a new puzzle of a dog and precisely assembling it based on the knowledge acquired during the training process. Now, imagine you have a bag of puzzle pieces without a picture or labels — just a mix of colors and shapes. In unsupervised learning, the model explores the characteristics of the puzzle pieces without any predefined labels or information about the complete picture, identifying groups that share similar colors, shapes, or patterns. The model doesn't know what the complete picture looks like, but it discovers that certain pieces belong together based on shared features. These groups represent clusters of similar puzzle pieces. In this puzzle analogy, supervised learning entails constructing a model with labeled examples to tackle a specific task, while unsupervised learning involves the model autonomously uncovering patterns or relationships within the data without explicit direction.

Part 2/5: Humor in the Halls of Academia: A Light-Hearted Look at PhD Life

Here are some humorous and light-hearted "PhD" abbreviations: - Permanently head Damaged (PhD): A playful nod to the intense intellectual effort involved in earning a PhD. - Piled higher and Deeper (PhD): A humorous take on the depth and complexity of PhD-level research. - Patiently hoping for a Degree (PhD): Reflects the long and often uncertain journey towards completing a PhD. - Probably half Delirious (PhD): Acknowledges the stress and mental strain that can come with pursuing a doctorate. - Pizza hut Delivery (PhD): A fun twist, imagining a PhD as something entirely different. - Project half Done (PhD): For those times when it feels like the thesis will never be completed. - Philosophically Disturbed (PhD): A witty take on the deep and often complex thinking required for a PhD. These are meant in good humor and to bring a light-hearted perspective to the serious and commendable pursuit of a PhD.

Part 1/5: Why You Should Apply for a PhD Regardless of Your Background

Less than 2% of the world's population holds a doctorate degree. Do you aspire to be part of the average, or will you strive to join the ranks of these distinguished individuals? - Expanding Knowledge: Deepen expertise in your chosen field, enhancing critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Gain unparalleled understanding and push the boundaries of what's known. - Personal Growth: Develop resilience, independence, and management skills through challenging research projects. Cultivate self-discipline and adaptability, crucial for success in any endeavor. - Career Opportunities: Opens doors to advanced roles in academia (research, teaching) and industry (R&D, consultancy, management). Elevates your professional profile and broadens career prospects. - Networking: Connect with professionals and academics for future collaborations and career advancement. Build a valuable network of contacts that can support your career for years to come. - Contribution to Field: Make significant contributions to your field, influencing both academic research and industry practices. Your work could lead to new discoveries, innovations, or methodologies. - Inclusivity and Diversity: Encourages a mix of perspectives, challenging stereotypes and promoting inclusivity in academia and industry. Contributes to a more diverse and equitable professional landscape. - Professional and Personal Transformation: A PhD is a journey of both professional expertise and personal development, beneficial for all backgrounds. It's an opportunity to grow intellectually, professionally, and personally. - Leadership Skills: Develop leadership abilities by guiding research projects, mentoring students, and collaborating with various stakeholders. - Global Perspective: Gain exposure to international research communities, broadening your understanding of global challenges and solutions. - Recognition and Prestige: Achieve a level of recognition and prestige in your field, establishing yourself as an authority and thought leader.

"Understanding Overfitting and Underfitting in a Quick 90-Second Read"

Overfitting and underfitting represent two common issues in machine learning that affect the performance of a model. In the context of overfitting, the model learns the training data too precisely, capturing noise and fluctuations that are specific to the training set but do not generalize well to new, unseen data. Underfitting, on the other hand, occurs when a model is enabled to capture the underlying patterns in the training data, resulting in poor performance not only on the training set but also on new, unseen data. It indicates a failure to learn the complexities of the data. **Analogy : ** Intuitively, returning to the example of the student that we presented in the definition of the machine learning concept, we discussed the possibility of considering a machine learning model as a student in a class. After the lecture phase, equivalent to the training step for the model, the student takes an exam or quiz to confirm their understanding of the course material. Now, imagine a student who failed to comprehend anything during the course and did not prepare. On the exam day, this student, having failed to grasp the content, will struggle to answer and will receive a low grade; this represents the case of underfitting in machine learning. On the other hand, let's consider another student who, despite having a limited understanding of the course, mechanically memorized the content and exercises. During the exam, when faced with questions reformulated or presented in a new manner, this student, having learned without true comprehension, will also fail due to the inability to adapt, illustrating the case of overfitting in machine learning. This analogy between a machine learning model and a student highlights the insightful parallels of underfitting and overfitting. Just as a student can fail by not grasping the course or memorizing without true understanding, a model can suffer from underfitting if it's too simple to capture patterns or overfitting if it memorizes the training data too precisely. Striking the right balance between complexity and generalization is crucial for developing effective machine learning models adaptable to diverse and unknown data. In essence, this educational analogy emphasizes the delicate equilibrium required in the machine learning learning process.

Part 5/5: 8 Inspiring Quotes on Leadership from Visionary Minds

Quotes can inspire visionary thinking, apply them wisely, and you'll witness the changes they bring about. "A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way, and shows the way." - John C. Maxwell "Success is not final, failure is not fatal: It is the courage to continue that counts." - Winston Churchill "Lead from the back — and let others believe they are in front." - Nelson Mandela "If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader." - John Quincy Adams "Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things." - Peter Drucker "Leadership is not about being in charge. It is about taking care of those in your charge." - Simon Sinek "A leader takes people where they want to go. A great leader takes people where they don't necessarily want to go, but ought to be." - Rosalynn Carter "Be the change that you wish to see in the world." - Mahatma Gandhi

Part 4/5: Understanding Personalities for Leadership in Academia and Industry

Know yourself, understand others, and watch life's opportunities unfold. - Recognize Individual Differences: Acknowledge and appreciate the diverse personality types within your team, understanding how these differences can contribute to a rich, dynamic work environment in both academia and industry. - Adapt Communication Styles: Tailor your communication to suit various personality types. This includes being aware of how different people prefer to receive information and feedback. - Foster Inclusive Environments: Create a workplace culture that respects and values different personalities, encouraging open dialogue and collaboration in both academic and industrial settings. - Leverage Strengths: Identify and use the unique strengths of different personality types. In academia, this could mean assigning research roles based on individual strengths, while in industry, it might involve delegating tasks that align with team members' innate skills. - Manage Conflict Sensitively: Understand how different personalities might clash and develop strategies to manage conflicts effectively, keeping in mind the distinct environments of academia and industry. - Encourage Diverse Perspectives: Promote an environment where varied viewpoints are welcomed and considered. This is essential for fostering innovation and critical thinking in both fields. - Personalized Mentorship: Offer guidance and mentorship that resonates with the individual personalities of your team members, helping them grow and develop in their respective roles. - Embrace Learning Styles: Recognize that different personalities may prefer different learning styles. Adapt your teaching and training methods accordingly in both academic and industrial contexts. - Promote Self-Awareness: Encourage team members to understand their own personalities and how these impact their work and interactions. This self-awareness can lead to more effective collaboration and leadership. - Balance Team Dynamics: Strive for a balance of personalities in teams to ensure a harmonious and productive work environment. This involves understanding how different personalities can complement each other in both academia and industry.

Part 3/5: Observational Learning for Effective Leadership in Academia and Industry

Paying close attention to the details teaches you a lot! - Observe Leadership Styles: Focus on the behaviors and decision-making styles of leaders you admire in both academia and industry. Understand how they approach challenges and interact with their teams. - Learn from Mistakes: Pay attention to the errors made by others. Reflect on these mistakes and contemplate alternative solutions or approaches you would adopt in similar situations. - Seek Feedback: Consider feedback as a crucial learning tool. Use it to refine your strategies, communication, and leadership techniques. - Study Communication Methods: Analyze how leaders effectively communicate complex ideas in academic settings and practical solutions in industry. Notice the clarity, tone, and engagement tactics they use. - Understand Ethical Decision-Making: Observe how leaders handle ethical dilemmas, ensuring integrity and moral responsibility in both academic research and industry practices. - Adaptability to Contexts: Learn how leaders modify their approach when dealing with academic theories versus practical industry applications. Understand the nuances and requirements of each sector. - Collaboration and Team Dynamics: Watch how successful leaders foster teamwork and collaboration in both academia, where research projects often require interdisciplinary cooperation, and in industry, where cross-functional teamwork is key. - Innovative Problem-Solving: Notice how leaders in both fields use creativity and innovation to solve complex problems. See how academic theories can be applied in practical industry scenarios. - Mentorship and Development: Observe how leaders nurture talent and encourage growth in their teams, both in academic environments and in the workplace. - Continuous Learning and Adaptation: Recognize the importance of ongoing education and staying abreast of current trends and research in both academia and industry to inform effective leadership.

Part 1/5 : Acquiring Self-Development and Leadership Skills: Beyond Innate Abilities

Becoming a great leader can transform your life, making you not only productive and satisfied but also widely admired. "The Power of Listening" - Practice active listening by giving full attention to the speaker. - Avoid interrupting and ask clarifying questions to show engagement. - Reflect on what is said and respond thoughtfully, demonstrating that you value their input. "Observational Learning" - Observe leaders you admire and note their behaviors and decision-making styles. - Learn from mistakes made by others, and think about how you would handle similar situations differently. "Navigating Team Dynamics" - Pay attention to the unique strengths and weaknesses of each team member. - Facilitate open and inclusive discussions to allow diverse perspectives to flourish. - Resolve conflicts by understanding the underlying issues and motivations. "Emotional Intelligence in Leadership" - Work on self-awareness to understand your emotions and how they affect others. - Practice empathy by putting yourself in your team members' shoes. - Develop your social skills, like effective communication and conflict resolution. "Understanding Personalities" - Study basic personality types and traits to better predict and understand behaviors. - Be adaptable in your approach to different personalities, customizing your leadership style as needed. - Show genuine interest in the personal and professional growth of your team members.

The Limits of Science and Skepticism

Skepticism is generally regarded as the ineffectuality of reason and observation against the givenness of the world, yet for science, reason and observation are taken as primary mechanisms for uncovering truth. ---- Science, or scientism as an ideology, is widely regarded as the ideal mechanisms for uncovering truth of the world. Disregarding any faults of scientific institutions, it is generally believed that good science can uncover previously unknown truths of the world. As for science and epistemology, science assumes much it is unable to demonstrate itself. As an extreme example, science assumes the existence of an external world without addressing whether we may or may not be a brain in a vat. Or, even more damning, that memories themselves are legitimate or not. It may very well be that you, the reader, were spawned into this world moments ago implanted with a lifetime of false memories that are completely ignorant to the facts of reality. It may seem like a silly idea to someone who has placed complete faith in their lived experiences, but by abandoning that lived experience, the odds become 50-50, either that you have real memories, or you don't. For those still unconvinced, let's assume you have lived experience. Do you suppose your memories at all resemble the truth of that lived experience? Surely you have been wrong before, or so you must believe so. You can't much then argue that you're not wrong about all lived experiences. You may elevate some knowledge of the past to some superior ontological status, but in doing so you may be making a critical mistake still. Any statement of fact is hubris and ignorance. Even that one and this one. Many scientists have been aware of these issues or similar. For this reason, a scientific fact is regarded as a theory. The existence of atoms, for example, not so sure. See atomic *theory*. As for philosophy, a philosopher is just one who tries to fool themselves using foolproof reason.